Sunday, March 5, 2017

Skin Conditions and Acne


Most people develop acne - the most common skin condition - to some degree, but it primarily affects teenagers undergoing hormonal changes.

Acne may be mild (few, occasional pimples), moderate (inflammatory papules), or severe (nodules and cysts). Treatment depends on the severity of the condition.

Adult Skin Problems: See Pictures of Blackheads and Whiteheads

What Causes Acne?

Acne is primarily a hormonal condition driven by male or ‘androgenic’ hormones, which typically become active during the teenage years. Sensitivity to such hormones, combined with bacteria on the skin, and fatty acids within oil glands, cause acne. Common sites for acne are the face, chest, shoulders, and back - the sites of oil glands.

Acne lesions include whiteheads, blackheads, small bumps, and nodules and cysts.

Though acne is essentially a normal physiologic occurrence, certain conditions may aggravate the condition, including:

Fluctuating hormone levels around the time of menses (women)
Manipulating (picking/prodding) acne lesions
Clothing (for example, hats and sports helmets) and headgear

How Is Acne Treated?

Only three types of drugs have proven to be effective for the treatment of acne - antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, and retinoids. Most people require at least one or two agents, depending on the severity of their acne.

Benzoyl peroxide, available as an over-the-counter product (for example, Clearasil, Stridex) and by prescription (for example, Benoxyl, PanOxyl, Persagel), targets surface bacteria, which often aggravate acne. Irritation (dryness) is a common side effect.
Retinoids (vitamin A derivatives), for example, Differin, Retin-A, Tazorac, treat blackheads and whiteheads, the first lesions of acne. The most common side effect is irritation. While most are prescription only, there is an over-the-counter version of Differin now available.
Antibiotics , either topically applied to the skin (clindamycin, erythromycin), or taken orally (tetracycline and its derivatives, ethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) control surface bacteria and reduce inflammation in the skin. Antibiotics are more effective when combined with benzoyl peroxide or retinoids. The oral retinoid isotretinoin (Absorica, Amnesteem, Claravis, Myorisan and Zenatane) is reserved for people with severe (nodular or cystic) disease. Isotretinoin shrinks the size of oil glands, the anatomic origin of acne. Without active, plump oil glands, acne actively diminishes. Side effects can include dry skin, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, and birth defects. Women of childbearing age must practice birth control before, during, and after treatment (often a year) with isotretinoin. The use of isotretinoin requires rigorous testing (cholesterol, pregnancy) and follow-up for the prescribed period (5 or more months). It is reserved for the most severe types of acne that do not respond to other treatments.
Hormone therapy may be helpful for some women with acne, especially for those with signs and symptoms (irregular periods, thinning hair) of androgen (male hormone) excess. The hormone therapy consists of low-dose estrogen and progesterone (birth control pills) or anti-androgen medications (spironolactone).

How Can Acne Be Prevented?

To prevent acne and reduce its damage to your skin, follow these tips.

Choose a cleanser specially formulated for acne. These products often contain salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide, which help to clear acne sores.
Clean your face gently, as trauma to the acne breakouts may worsen the acne or cause scarring. When washing your face, use your hands or cotton pads, as any terrycloth or other scrubbing material may cause acne sores to rupture.
If you need to use a moisturizer, use only light, noncomedogenic moisturizers, which do not aggravate acne.
If you are a woman, use an oil-free foundation. Heavy makeup or other cosmetic products that block pores may cause a flare-up of acne.


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Thursday, February 2, 2017

A Pinworm Medication Is Being Tested As A Potential Anti-Cancer Drug


Cancer researchers are testing whether a generic drug that has been used for more than 40 years to treat parasitic infections may also help fight cancer.

The tests of mebendazole are part of a growing effort to take a fresh look at old medicines to see if they can be repurposed for new uses.

I first learned about mebendazole several years back when my son came home from camp with a gross but common infection: pinworms.

My pediatrician prescribed two doses of mebendazole, and two weeks later the infection was gone.

Flash-forward a couple of years, and I was surprised to find on, the federal database of medical trials, that mebendazole was being investigated as a potential cancer drug.

Curious, I contacted Gregory Riggins, a cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins University who is testing the safety of mebendazole as a potential cancer treatment. He invited me to his lab in Baltimore.

Riggins took me inside and showed me cages of cancer research mice. A few years back, he said, his idea to test mebendazole started here.

Some of the lab animals got infected with pinworms, the same parasite my son had. The veterinarian at Johns Hopkins treated the whole colony of mice with an animal version of mebendazole.

The drug staved off the parasite, but it also did something surprising. Before the mice were treated for pinworms, Riggins and his team had implanted cancer cells into the animals' brains.

But after the mice got the pinworm drug, the cancers never developed. "Our medulloblastoma stopped growing," Riggins says. He found out that other researchers were conducting animal studies to see if the drug had effects on lung cancer and melanoma.

So he got funding to do two Phase 1 studies to test whether mebendazole is safe to use in brain cancer patients, one in children and another in adults. So far the drug appears to be safe and well tolerated by patients, Riggins says. That would be expected, given that it has been used for decades around the world to treat pinworms.

"Based on the preclinical studies it looks like it has promise," says Tracy Batchelor, director of the division of neuro-oncology at Massachusetts General Hospital, who is not involved in the research. "The next step is to look for a benefit in a Phase 2 trial." That would test whether mebendazole has any effect on cancer in people. Riggins hopes to conduct that sort of trial in adult brain cancer patients.

At a time when it can cost a billion dollars to develop a new drug, the idea of repurposing existing drugs is appealing, according to Bruce Bloom. He's the president and chief science officer of Cures Within Reach, which has helped to fund Riggins' research.

Bloom points to research on metformin, a diabetes drug that's being looked at as a potential treatment for a dozen different kinds of cancer and also tuberculosis. A common blood pressure drug, propranolol, is also being studied.

"It's not likely that mebendazole or any other single repurposed drug is ever going to cure cancer," Bloom says. But he envisions the possibility that combinations of repurposed drugs might help the body to manage cancer.

Any use of mebendazole as a cancer drug would be years away, if it proves to work at all. Most drugs that emerge from Phase 1 trials never deliver the hoped-for benefits.

And in an odd twist to a complicated story, the cost of mebendazole in the U.S. has skyrocketed in recent years. Though it remains very affordable in most countries, the wholesale cost of a 100 mg tablet in the U.S. has risen from $4.50 in 2011 to $369 in 2016, according to Truven Health Analytics.

The dynamics that led to the price hike were in play before interest rose in the drug as a potential cancer treatment, analysts say. In 2013, Amedra Pharmaceuticals bought marketing rights to mebendazole from Teva Pharmaceuticals. It already owned rights to another key generic antiparasitic drug, albendazole.

"At that point, anyone who has had a high school or undergraduate economics course would be able to explain the price hike," says Joey Mattingly, an assistant professor in the department of pharmacy practice and science at the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy who studies generic drug pricing.

That leaves people with pinworm infections with the choice of two expensive prescription medications or cheaper over-the-counter options.

"Pinworms are exceedingly common," says Rachel Orscheln, an assistant professor of pediatric infectious diseases at Washington University and St. Louis Children's Hospital. The CDC estimates 40 million people are infected in the U.S. annually. Orscheln says the people most likely to be infected are children and people who are living in group settings such as nursing homes.

"There are certain cases where we do need to prescribe this medication," says Orscheln. But at the higher price, she says, "I'm very disinclined to prescribe [it]." She says over-the-counter drugs such as Pin-X or pyrantel, can work just as well in children, so "I'm very likely to steer people in that direction."